IMRAD Structure for Science and Engineering Papers

1.     Abstract must clearly state experimental objectives and conclusions

2.     Introduction

a)    Must be between 300 and 500 words

b)    Must briefly justify the research and specify the hypotheses to be tested

c)    Must include the objectives

d)    Must not go into the specifics of the relevant literature

3.    Materials and Methods

a)    A statement of the results of the statistical analysis should justify the interpretations and the conclusions

b)    A clear description for all biological, analytical and statistical procedures

c)    The statistical model classes and experimental units must be specified

d)    Provide a publication reference for the previously used experimental methodologies

e)    Any restrictions used in evacuating parameters should be defined

4.       Results

a)   Figures: Figures should be of high quality. No figures should be blurry or hazy. Figures should be labeled clearly and sequentially starting from 1 onwards. Pictures of gels should be of high quality and medium to high contrast to keep the gel from being blurry and to prevent the appearance of non-specific bands that are from the gel not the samples. All figures and pictures included in the text should be of JPEG format, so as to not increase the size of the file.

b)   Any figures including colors (immunohistochemistry, etc.) should be labeled with a legend for what each color represents, and merged images cannot be presented alone, they have to be presented with the single-staining images. For light microscopy pictures, they should be clearly labeled with what they represent and the appropriate scale should be placed at the bottom left or bottom right side of the picture. For NMR results and X-ray crystallography images, the scale of any new parts (active sites, grooves, etc.) must be labeled on the figures with the appropriate SI units. Statistics and formulas used for optimizing the model should be provided separately.

c)    Graphs: For multiple analyses, a legend should be provided for each parameter represented on the graph. The use of words such as “significant” or “highly significant” should be accompanied with the respective P-values both in text (wither in legend or the paper) and on the figure as an asterisk or a double asterisk respectively. In case of graphs that uses scoring or units that have been innovated by the author(s); the scores should be explained clearly, the meaning of each score and how it is obtained. If any of the graphs or results uses movies to obtain their data, the movies should be placed in the supplementary materials at the end of the paper. Those will be added to the digital format of the paper to be available for download.

d)    Movies: Movies should be high quality. The time period of each movie should be mentioned beside it. The maximum period of each movie should be no longer than 10 minutes. Authors should provide a valid reason for the submission of any movie whose length exceeds ten minutes.

e)    Mathematical models: Any results obtained from mathematical algorithms or models should be clearly identified as being obtained from which mathematical algorithm or model; example: “These results have from model (1).” An appendix should be placed at the end with all the mathematical models and algorithms used and corresponding numbers.

5.    Discussion:

a)    Should not provide any new results not previously mentioned

b)    Should interpret and explain results thoroughly

c)    Should provide explanations for results obtained

d)    Should provide predictions and extrapolations for future work on a similar topic