Frequently Asked Questions

IT Help Desk

  • Ensure that the clearpass icon is open at the bottom right of your screen. If you cannot locate it, open the program from the start menu. 

    • Right-click on the network icon at the right corner of your toolbar
    • Select Open Network and Internet Settings
    • Select Change Adaptor Options
    • Right-click on Ethernet
    • Select Properties
    • Select Authentication
    • Select Additional Settings
    • Select Replace credentials or Save Credentials
    • Enter your AUC email username and password
    • Click Ok on all open windows till you reach Ethernet
  • This is a browser error. Either use a different browser or clear the cache of your browser as follows:

    1. Open Chrome or Firefox
    2. On new tab, for Chrome click Ctrl+H, for Firefox Ctrl+Shift+Delete
    3. In the clear browsing data box, choose advanced in the case of Chrome and use the menu at the top to select the amount of data that you want to delete. Choose from the drop-down list clear the following items from the past week. Check all the boxes including cookies and other site data, and cached images and files except media licenses and passwords (if you have any saved)
    4. Click on clear browsing data
    5. Restart the browser
  • If you receive the error unauthorized access upon login, follow the below steps:

    1. Clear the cache of your browser as follows
      1. Open Chrome or Firefox
      2. On a new tab for Chrome, click Ctrl+H; for Firefox Ctrl+Shift+Delete
      3. In the Clear browsing data box, choose Advanced in the case of Chrome and use the menu at the top to select the amount of data that you want to delete. Choose from the drop-down list clear the following items from the past week
      4. Check all the boxes, including Cookies and other site data, and cached images and files except media licenses and passwords (if you have any saved)
      5. Click clear browsing data
    2. Restart the browser


Desktop Technical Support

  • Click on Ctrl+Alt+Delete and Lock. When you want to unlock your computer, type in your password. On Windows, you can also press the Windows key and L for easy access.

  • A print queue is a list of all documents that are scheduled to be printed, and you will want to clear this if you no longer want to print all of the documents. To clear your print queue, simply locate your printer settings and right-click on the correct printer. You will then see a list of all documents, which you can then right-click and cancel.

    • Press the Windows button+R
    • Type:\\
    • Press ok
    • In the generated window, type:
      auc\username (your AUC email username) without
      Password (your AUC email password)
  • First, check the computer's power cord to make sure it is completely plugged into the wall socket. If you are using a plug strip, make sure it is completely plugged into the wall socket and that the power switch on the plug strip is turned on. Some plug strips also have a built-in circuit breaker which usually looks like a black or red button near the power switch. Press the button to reset it and see if that solves the problem.

  • There are many reasons why a computer may just stop working or "freeze". Most of the time there isn't much we can do about it, it is a fact of life that computer programs have become so complex that occasionally users will experience problems even when performing common tasks. When your computer no longer responds to keyboard commands your best bet is to restart the computer.

  • Microsoft Internet Explorer users can go to 'Tools' (or the little cog icon in the top left), then go to 'Safety' and choose 'Delete browsing history', you can then choose to delete your Internet cookies. In Google Chrome, go to 'More Tools' and choose 'Clear browsing data.' Firefox users can go to 'History', then choose 'Clear recent history.'

  • Students, faculty, and staff can schedule an appointment with the IT desktop technical support representative to help troubleshoot their personal laptop and desktop application problems for both Windows and Mac IOS platforms. This service also helps in software installations, including MS Windows.

    • Provide on-site analysis, identification, and resolution of difficult desktop problems for end-users, including MS-Windows operating system and application installation.
    • Test, evaluate, and assess new IT equipment to ensure the quality of products purchased by AUC.
    • Inspect the new equipment to ensure that AUC received the right spec of purchased products from vendors.
    • Support remote installation and give desktop technical support for remote users (limited now).
    • Assist limitedly with hardware and technical support advice.
    • Prepare reports regarding old IT equipment transferred to the AUC warehouse before re-distribution to the department for reuse when needed.

VPN Account Creation

  • To create a VPN account, fill in this form and wait for a creation notification email to set up your account within two business days.

  • After receiving a VPN account creation notification email, activate your account by following the steps below:

    1. Open and download the forticlient for your OS
    2. Set the connection name as you want
    3. Set VPN type to SSL VPN
    4. Server address is  and the port: 8090
    5. Use your email username (your email without and password as your initial credentials and log in to have a successful connection

Microsoft Windows

Microsoft Office

  • All students, faculty and staff are eligible to install Microsoft Office 365 for free.
    To access all Microsoft 365 apps and folders and OneDrive shared files, sign in to Microsoft 365 Portal using your AUC email credentials
    Note: You must be logged in to access your product

Microsoft Teams

Visual Studio

Zoom Video Conferencing 

  • 1. Open Zoom any browser and type


    2. If you have a meeting ID, choose join a meeting to connect a meeting in progress.
    3. Click on sign-in to configure your account.


    4. Click on sign in with Google.
    5. You will then be directed to enter.

  •  1. Sign in first, as mentioned above.
    2. Choose my account from the upper right side of the page.
    3. Select meetings from the left column under personal.
    4. Click on schedule a new meeting.


    5. Topic: type in the title of the meeting.
    6. When: choose the date and the time of the invitation.
    7. Duration: choose how many hours the meeting will be held.
    8. Fill up all the data as per the below screenshots then click on save.



    9. The meeting invitation will appear as shown below: 


    10. Go to invite attendees then select copy meeting invitation as per the below screenshots and send it via email to the meeting attendees.


  • The invitation to a zoom meeting will be as follows:

    Topic: Meeting

    Time: May 9, 2017, 2:00 pm, Cairo 

    Join from PC, MAC, Linux, IOS or Android here

    Meeting ID: 123 456 789 

    Or iPhone one-tap (US Toll): +14086380968, 123456789# or +16465588656, 123456789#

    Or telephone: Dial +1 408 638 0968 (US Toll) or +1 646 558 8656 (US Toll)

    Zoom International Dial-in Numbers can be found at this link.

    Or an H.323/SIP room system:

    H.323: (US West) (US East) (China) (India) (EMEA) (Australia) (Hong Kong)

    If you are using a desktop or laptop:

    1. Open the invitation email and click on the first provided link in the invitation e-mail:


     Zoom webpage will open in a new tab in your browser.

    2. For first time access to zoom application, select launch application/download here or select run/save at the bottom of the page



    3. Open the Zoom icon.
    4. Click on join a meeting.


    5. Type down the meeting ID as seen below.
    6. Then type in your name in the Enter your name field.
    7. Select remember my name for the future meeting to save your name for all upcoming meetings.


    8. To invite more people to join by email, use the invite icon or send them an SMS with the meeting ID number.


    If you are using Android/iPhone/Tablet/iPad:

    1. Download the Zoom Cloud Meetings application from Apple App Store or Google Play Store.


    2. To join a meeting, you can either select join a meeting and then enter the meeting ID number or you can directly click on the URL sent to you via email.


    3. To invite more people to join, click on the Participants icon on the bottom then click invite. You can invite via SMS or by copying the URL.

    1. Sign in to your Zoom account on the web browser by following the below instructions:
    • Go to
    • Click on the Sign In located in the top right corner.
    • Choose the Sign in with Google option.
    • Enter your AUC email credentials, and You are in!

    2. Select the Recordings category on the left. Under the Cloud Recordings tab at the top, you will have a list of the recordings you saved to the cloud. Click on the More button next to the item you wish to download. 


    3. From the available options, select the Download option to start downloading all your recordings related to the selected topic.

    4. You can also export a list of cloud recordings or export a CSV of viewing analytics.

    1.  Sign in to your Zoom account on the web browser by following the below instructions:
    • Go to
    • Click on the Sign in button located in the top right corner
    • Choose the Sign in with Google option
    • Enter your AUC email credentials, and you are in!

    2. Select the Recordings category on the left. Under the Cloud Recordings tab at the top, you will have a list of the recordings you saved to the cloud. On this list, choose the items you wish to delete.

    • 1

    3. Click on Delete Selected button to proceed.


Remote Access to Campus Computer Labs

  • Yes, if you want to work on any of the machines on campus’ computer labs, all you need to do is to download the RealVNC Software from here and refer to your course instructor/TA or Lab administrator to receive an invitation to create a RealVNC account. RealVNC software works across all devices and operating systems including Windows, macOS, iOS, Android, and Linux ensuring a secure and reliable remote desktop connection.

    • Architecture Engineering Lab
    • Computer Science Engineering Lab
    • Construction Engineering Lab
    • Electronic Engineering Computer Lab
    • GAPP labs
    • Jameel Building Computer Lab
    • Mechanical Engineering Lab
    • Petroleum Engineering Lab
    • Physics Lab
    • Psychology labs
    • PVA labs
    • UACT labs

    The above list will be updated once new locations are available.

  • 1. Install or run VNC Viewer and sign in using your RealVNC account credentials. You should see the remote computer appear in the AUC team.

    2. Click or tap to connect. You are prompted to authenticate to VNC Server. 
    3. Enter the username and password that you will receive from the Lab supervisor.

Google Chat

    • Download the new mobile app for Android or iOS.
    • Download the new standalone desktop app if you have used the classic Hangouts Chrome extension or app. You can access the desktop app from a prompt that appears on
    • On February 7, 2021, refresh your Gmail to get the new Chat in Gmail experience.
  • You can continue recent conversations from classic Hangouts in Google Chat. Over time, older conversations from classic Hangouts will also migrate to Google Chat. All previous chat history from classic Hangouts will be accessible in Gmail.

    • Google Voice and Google Fi are not available through Chat. If you already have a Google Voice account, you can either access Google Voice, select Voice from the App launcher or download the Google Voice app (Android, iOS)
    • Google Fi users must use the default SMS app on their mobile devices to send and receive SMS messages. If you start rooms in Chat with the option for threaded conversations, these rooms will not appear to people who still use classic Hangouts.
    • Go to the Google Workspace Learning Center for more information about the new Chat.
    • The AUC Help Desk is ready to answer your questions by phone at t: +20.2.2615.1200 for any additional assist.

Targeted Announcements

Meeting Rooms and Lecture Halls

Assistive Technology 


How can I find help if I need assistive technology services?

You can reach us by email at

Or pay us a visit at the following locations:

a. Room P145, Prince Alwaleed Bin Talal Bin Abdulaziz Alsaud Hall (HUSS Building), Ahmed Abdel Tawab.
b. Room P003, AUC Library, Fatma Moussa.

What do I need to be able to use assistive technology services?

You must be an affiliated AUC member (undergraduate student, graduate student, faculty, or staff) with an active AUC email.

What exactly do the assistive technology services offer?

Assistive technology services offer many services for students with different abilities.

  • Academic documents’ delivery services including:
    • Optical Character Recognition (OCR) document scanning in both English and Arabic formats
    • PDF files conversion to Word or Braille file formats
  • Braille printing services
  • Screen Reading Services
  • In-class note-taking device rental services
  • One-to-one or focus groups training services

For a complete list of assistive technology software and hardware, click here. 

During campus closure, can I still obtain the same level of service?

All services mentioned in the previous question remain except for Braille printing services.

I need access to reading materials from the AUC library during campus closure. What should I do?

For library operations during campus closure, check the library's website here. 

To access online books though, contact the Center for Student Well-Being.

I have a book chapter that I need to convert to a word file. What should I do?

Post a service request on the IT support portal or email

I cannot follow up in class; I need to take notes. Can you please help?

The assistive technology services offer device rental devices for class note-taking using Braille or MP3 recording. Email for more information.

For how long can I keep the in-class note-taking device?

This depends on the number of users requesting the service relative to the number of available devices we currently have. You can keep it for a complete semester unless it is needed by another student when you start coordinating the device exchange.

For more information, email:

What is an acceptable format to have the OCR run successfully with fewer errors?

  • Printed or pdf resources should be clear, without handwriting, underlining watermarks, or bad-quality images.
  • Scanned copies shouldn't be inverted pages or two-sided.
  • For PDF documents that are password protected, refer back to your instructor.

My computer crashes sometimes due to my heavy work; how can I regularly avoid this crash?

Below are some tips and tricks:

a. Avoid opening many heavy programs simultaneously that consume your computer memory, such as Word, PowerPoint, Excel, Outlook, etc.
b. Open each program separately, and use the Windows+Insert+F4 key if JAWS hangs after closing it. This key unloads JAWS completely from memory and restarts automatically as a fresh session without the pre-loaded scripts.
c. Weekly clear user temp (%temp%) and Windows Temp (temp)
e. Monthly run disk cleanup utility (cleanmgr)

Call t: +2.2615.1200  to direct you to the technical support specialist.

Can I have screen reader software installed on my personal Laptop?

The assistive technology services at AUC offer a free installation on the student's laptop until he/she graduates from AUC.

Email to request a license.

JAWS Reader (Assistive Technology)


How to control the voice in JAWS?

For more details, listen here.

How to display JAWS main screen?

For more details, listen here.

How to make JAWS read the page number and the line number in Word?

For more details, listen here.

Microsoft Word (Assistive Technology)


How to control the font dialog box in Microsoft Word?

For more details, listen here.

How to create a new paragraph or line and make a list of bullets or numbers?

For more details, listen here.

How do the paragraphs list and the paragraph align?

For more details, listen here.

How to format text in MS Word and control the line spacing?

For more details, listen here.

How do make JAWS say all of the document formats, and what are the functions of the Home and End keys with Word?

For more details, listen here.

How to open the Word app, open a new document, save the Word file, and move between multi-Word documents?

For more details, listen here.

Microsoft PowerPoint (Assistive Technology)


How do you format the text in each object on the slides, and how do you make jaws say the formatting details?

For more details, listen here.

How to insert a new slide, and what kinds of objects are in the second slide?

For more details, listen here.

How to move between the slides, the objects, and the edit area, and how to edit in the edit area?

For more details, listen here.

How to open the PowerPoint App?

For more details, listen here.

How to save the PowerPoint presentation file?

For more details, listen here.

Email (Assistive Technology)


How to attach files?

For more details, listen here.

How to open and move between email messages?

For more details, listen here.

How to read the title of an email message and the body of the email message?

For more details, listen here.

How to reach the email page objects like the edit box, checkbox, headings, and combo box?

For more details, listen here.

Banner (Assistive Technology)


How can I browse the Banner?

For more details, listen here.

How can I log in to the Banner?

For more details, listen here.                                                                                                         

What is the Banner and what are its components?

For more details, listen here.

Blackboard (Assistive Technology)


How can I browse Blackboard?

For more details, listen here.

What is the AUC Blackboard, and what are its components?

For more details, listen here.

Google Classroom (Assistive Technology)


How to answer and move into an assignment with multiple-choice questions?

For more details, listen here.

How to find a specific assignment by JAWS and enter it into any Google classroom assignment?

For more details, listen here.

How to get the wanted assignment?

For more details, listen here.

What is the best way to enter google classroom?

For more details, listen here.

What are the google classroom components, and how to move between them and enter into anyone of them?

For more details, listen here.

Google Drive (Assistive Technology)


How do you know the files in Google Drive and those shared with me by someone by JAWS?

For more details, listen here.

How to open google drive and upload files from a laptop by sending an email to google drive?

For more details, listen here.

How to share, preview, remove, or get links to the files on Google drive?

For more details, listen here.

University Phone Sets

  • When you have a new missed call, the Call Log Key1 will be illuminated in red.

    You can also find an icon 2 displayed at the top-right corner of the phone's main screen to indicate new missed calls and shows the number of missed callers.

    If the number of missed calls is more than 9 missed calls, the number in the icon 3 will change to the (+) sign to indicate this.

    To access your call log, click on the Call Log key 4. There, you can find your missed calls, answered calls and dialed numbers.

  • 1. Click on Contacts 11to display the directory menu. 
    2. Click on the Search soft key.
    3. Start searching by typing your last name using the phone keypad.
    4. Press the Search soft key again to display results.
    5. Use the up and down cursor keys to select your desired contact from the list displayed on the screen. For each item on the list, you have the option to call, get more details or add to your contacts using the soft keys.

  • Click on the Redial key 22to immediately repeat your most recent outgoing call.

    If you wish, the function of this key can be set to give you access to your list of outgoing calls. To do so, click on the Features soft key, then use cursor keys to select Call Settings. Use the up and down cursor keys to select your desired redial mode.

  • The forward functionality redirects unanswered received calls to another extension or an external number. To forward your calls to another number:

    1. Click on the Forward Call key 111
    1. Enter the phone number or extension to which you wish to forward your calls, then click on the OK Soft key.
  • Click on the Hold soft key 51. The phone displays On-Hold before the call information, and the held call displays the below icon.

  • If you are on a call and need to add a third person to that call:

    1. Click on the Conference key 61

    Once you do so, the current call will be put on hold.

    2. Dial the extension that you wish to add to your call, and when you get an answer, click on the Conference key again to merge both calls into a conference call.

    3. If the recipient of the second call didn’t answer your call or didn’t want to join the call, click on the Line key next to the previously held call displayed on the main screen to reconnect again to that call.

    Whilst held the caller hears music.

  • 1. To login to your voicemail, press the Message key 71

    2. After a small ringtone, you will be asked to enter your password.

    3. Follow the voice prompts to playback your voice messages.

    If you need to reset your password, open an IT Ticket.


  • Falcon CrowdStrike is an Endpoint Detection and Response (EDR), which is the evolution of the known antivirus technology.

    EDR is considered the next-generation anti-virus as it is the replacement for the traditional known anti-virus solutions that became obsolete and inefficient in detecting and preventing attacks and malware.

    This EDR technical offering is powered by machine learning to ensure that breaches are stopped before they occur/spread, even if it is seen for the first time.

    For the Crowdstrike FAQs, click here.

  • Yes, Endpoint Detection and Response (EDR) is the next generation of the traditional antivirus.

    It has normal anti-virus capabilities; this platform has much more ability to detect modern attacks based on machine learning and artificial intelligence.

    Examples of other universities that use CrowdStrike in specific (aside from universities that use other EDR brands):

  • Ransomware and advanced cyber attacks became very hard to detect and contain. The expected AUC loss cost is huge if it gets a successful ransomware attack. Egyptian and International laws mandate organizations to set the proper controls for protection. Accordingly, the EDR/Crowdstrike became essential for maintaining AUC security and compliance.

  • It's available to all AUC devices’ that are in the custody of faculty and staff, as well as all AUC servers and digital services. In general, all AUC critical/important digital services should have Crowdstrike. AUC services, data and research are our focus.

    Personal devices owned by faculty/staff/students, lab devices and pure isolated build-and-destroy environments are currently excluded.

  • You can open a ticket with IT Support or contact the IT support team in your office/area/department.

  • CrowdStrike is a lightweight program on your machine with a size of less than 5 MB. Once CrowdStrike is installed, it proactively scans for threats on your machine without running scans manually. CrowdStrike automatically scans any flash memory/external storage attached to the device without any initiation from the user. CrowdStrike will not alert you when a threat is found or blocked; it will alert the information security team to do an adequate assessment, respond, and notify/alert you. There is no system tray icon for the software; CrowdStrike runs in the background. Updates for CrowdStrike are done automatically, so there is no need to update manually.

  • No, CrowdStrike is not designed to open and read your files; Crowdstrike does not access the content of any:

    • Documents
    • Email messages
    • Websites
    • Web pages that are viewed/visited
    • Instant messaging/chat communications

    Also, Crowdstrike is not designed to track and report details of your online activity unless they expressly and explicitly threaten the computer; accordingly, as part of securing it, the team will trace the hacker/malicious file online activity.

    Visit CrowdStrike FAQs to know more about the data sent to the CrowdStrike Cloud.

    University statements about CloudStrike Cloud:

    University of Michigan: Endpoint Protection: Data Collection, Sensitive Data, and Privacy

    Cornell University: Crowd Strike Frequently Asked Questions

    University of Illinois: Endpoint Security, CrowdStrike, Frequently Asked Questions

  • Crowdstrike does not access the content of any:

    • Documents
    • Email messages
    • Websites
    • Web pages that are viewed/visited
    • Instant messaging/Chat communications

    CrowdStrike looks for suspicious processes and programs. To do this, it records details about the username that has logged in on the machine, what programs are run, and the names of programs/files that are read or written, and records network activity.

    The above-mentioned activities set are done to identify malicious software installation/action, ransomware/encryption action, data exfiltration, remote control and so on. It analyzes the behavior of executable programs/scripts to detect malicious code or connections to IPs that are used by hackers.

    For example, if you log in and open a Microsoft Word document called “example.docx,” CrowdStrike Falcon will:

    • Record the computer name and logged-in user name
    • Record that the Word application was run and gather some details about the Word program itself
    • Record the file name “example.docx” but will not access or provide any information about the content of that file

    For more information about CrowdStrikehave access to the contents of my files or track my online activity; check the previous question in the FAQs.

    Visit CrowdStrike FAQs to know more about the data sent to the CrowdStrike Cloud.

    University statements about CloudStrike Cloud:

    University of Michigan: Endpoint Protection: Data Collection, Sensitive Data, and Privacy

    Cornell University: Crowd Strike Frequently Asked Questions

    University of Illinois: Endpoint Security, CrowdStrike, Frequently Asked Questions

  • No, CrowdStrike is unlikely to affect the computer’s performance. It is also designed to be lightweight and not interfere with the normal use of the computer. Rather than scanning entire hard drives for viruses, CrowdStrike more efficiently detects patterns of suspicious program activity to identify possible malware. And It uses a negligible amount of bandwidth to function.

    • CrowdStrike complies with GDPR requirements for properly handling personal data collected and stored in the CrowdStrike Falcon platform.
    • CrowdStrike offers a platform and cloud security, intelligence subscription services, professional services, and more to organizations looking to achieve GDPR compliance.

    In addition to adhering to post-Schrems II lawful transfer mechanisms, as detailed in the data protection agreement, CrowdStrike continues to participate in and has certified compliance with the EU-US Privacy Shield Framework and the Swiss-US Privacy Shield Framework. CrowdStrike is committed to subjecting personal information received from the European Economic Area (EEA), the United Kingdom, and Switzerland in reliance on each Privacy Shield Framework to the Framework’s applicable Principles.

    To view the CrowdStrike compliance certification list, click here.

    1. PCI DSS V3.2
    2. Cybersecurity Maturity Model Certification (CMMC)
    3. FEDRAMP
    4. Criminal Justice Information Services (CJIS)
    5. EU-U.S. and Swiss-U.S. Privacy Shield Frameworks
    6. General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR)
    7. HIPAA
    8. NIST SP 800-53 REV. 4
    9. FFIEC
    10. VPAT
    15. NSA-CIRA

    To view the CrowdStrike compliance certification list, click here.

  • The Crowdstrike solution runs from a Crowdstrike-owned cloud; accordingly, the logs/evidence of all administrative activities are tamper-proof/can’t be deleted. Also, access to Crowdstrike solution is protected and recorded through a privileged access management solution against any possible violations, abuses, and sabotages. Access to the Crowdstrike solution is restricted by AUC to a small, designated team only.

  • Modern attacks and hackers’ first action when they hack any device is to disable any Antivirus/Protection software on that device. Accordingly, CrowdStrike is designed with protection guards against this to prevent potential attackers from removing it from the computer. Same as most anti-viruses solutions. You will need to open a ticket with IT Support with a clear justification for the removal request.

Software Installation Guides


  • IBM® BigFix is a suite of products that provides a fast and intuitive solution for security management and allows AUC to collect security reports from managed computers. The collected data does not include any direct personal identifiers (email, calendar events, contacts, personal files) from your laptop or desktop computer.

  • BigFix collects security reports from managed computers that include data related to Hardware, Running Operating system, Network connectivity, and BigFix Client. You can find detailed information about retrieved data on the BigFix Retrieved Properties List.

  • The American University in Cairo respects your privacy, and BigFix does not collect any direct personal data (email, calendar events, contacts, personal files, and so on) from your laptop or desktop computer.

    • No, BigFix is not used for remote support in any way, but instead, AUC uses:

      • VNC for Classrooms and Labs support
      • Zoom for office support

    Remote Support

    • While opening an IT ticket, you can leave a note stating that your preference is to have your support session remotely. Your request will be subject to technical assessment, and if feasible, an IT staff member will contact you to arrange for holding the session remotely.

    • The allowed actions while in a remote support session are:

      • Asking the user to restart if needed
      • Asking the user to control or open applications or webpage for testing
      • Asking the user permission to send a file to his computer

      Note that IT staff members will never ask for sharing or disclosing users' credentials or any confidential information during remote support sessions.

    • Below are the applications allowed for remote support and their zone of usage:

      • Classrooms: VNC
      • Offices: Zoom
    • Yes, there is an AUC IT Procedure for Remote Access that prohibits using remote support software without user consent. Any violation of this procedure will subject the violator to sanctions up to dismissal. Only defined and limited IT staff has the right to use the remote support feature. Any exception is not allowed, and if requested, it will need senior management's explicit and documented approval. Without such approval, all remote support actions are not allowed, and the user may complain that their confidentiality was violated.