- Abbreviation for electronic: e-book, e-reader, e-commerce, e-networking, e-business, e-cash.
- The word earth is generally lowercase. Capitalize when used as the proper name of the planet: He is down to earth. Mercury is the planet closest to the sun, followed by Venus and then Earth.
- The electronic version of a book or publication, sold digitally. Also e-book reader or e-reader.
- E-classrooms are classrooms equipped with electronic media and equipment. Use smart classrooms instead.
- Do not hyphenate: email, not e-mail.
- Lowercase except when it is the first word in a sentence.
- Do not write the word 'email' when listing contact information; just put the e-mail address:
For more information: email@example.com.
- Email may be used as a noun, verb or adjective:
- He checks his email daily (n.).
- I emailed you the document (v.).
- Your email address is very creative (adj.).
- An online invitation. Do not use e-invite.
- effect (n.) means result: The therapy had a phenomenal effect.
- effect (v.) means to cause: The president will effect new changes in policy.
- affect (n.) means emotion (used mostly in psychology).
- affect (v.) means to influence: The incident affected her deeply.
- e.g. (exempli gratia) means for example. Use it to give an example of something already stated.
- i.e. (id est) means that is. Use it to clarify a point that has been made.
- When using e.g. and i.e., set off with commas and use periods: Please state your status, i.e. graduate or undergraduate.
- It is preferable to spell out the terms and avoid using e.g. and i.e.
- Not preferred: The professor attended conferences in many countries worldwide, e.g. France, Italy and Egypt.
- Preferred: The professor attended conferences in many countries worldwide, including France, Italy and Egypt.
- Always hyphenate and lowercase, except when used as a formal title before a name: President-elect John Smith.
- See Punctuation.
em dash, en dash
- See Punctuation.
- Capitalize with the name of a nation; lowercase without it: the Indian Embassy, the embassy.
emerita, emeritus, emeriti
- Professor emeritus means a retired male faculty who is permitted to retain the rank of his last academic appointment as an honorary title.
- Capitalize when preceding the name; otherwise lowercase: Professor Emeritus Nicholas Hopkins attended the event. Nicholas Hopkins, professor emeritus, attended the event.
- Emerita refers to the female; emirit to the plural.
- Professor emeritus, not emeritus professor.
- Capitalize only when used with a specific term and year: the Fall 2012 Employment Fair. I plan to attend tomorrow’s employment fair.
- Two words.
- But follow the spelling of formal names: Encyclopedia Britannica.
- Use the term endowed professorship lowercase, not endowed chair.
- Capitalize when referring to the official name: the Abdulhadi H. Taher Endowed Professorship in Comparative Religion. The comparative religion professorship was launched last year.
- Endowed professorship in, not of.
- But reinforce.
Engineering and Science Services
- Capitalize. Click here for a list of University offices.
- Lowercase when meaning spiritual or intellectual insight: He enlightened me with his thoughts.
- Capitalize when referring to the philosophical movement of the 18th century: We studied the Enlightenment period in class.
- Use inquire, inquiry.
enroll, enrolled, enrolling
ensure, insure, assure
- Use ensure to mean guarantee: Steps were taken to ensure accuracy.
- Use insure for references to insurance: The policy insures his life.
- Use assure to mean to make sure or give confidence: She assured us the statement was accurate.
- Entitled means to have a right to something: People are entitled to fair treatment.
- Titled refers to the names of books, movies, plays, songs or lectures. The professor will give a lecture titled “Water Issues in the Middle East.”
- Other verb forms: enveloping, enveloped. But: envelope (n.).
- Not a formal title; lowercase.
- Do not use the words together; one is sufficient. Omit the 'equally' shown here in parentheses: She was (equally) as wise as Marilyn.
- Capitalize the names of widely recognized eras: Dark Ages, Middle Ages.
- Capitalize widely recognized popular names of periods and events: July 23 Revolution, Great Depression, Industrial Revolution.
- Lowercase century: 21st century.
- Capitalize only the proper nouns or adjectives in general descriptions of a period: ancient Egypt, classical Rome.
- Capitalize the names of eras, but not the word era: Nasserist era.
et al., etc.
- Et al. is a Latin abbreviation meaning and others. Etc. is also a Latin abbreviation and means so on. Avoid such abbreviations.
- Generally, do not hyphenate words with ethno- as a prefix.
- Consult The American Heritage Dictionary. If not listed, hyphenate.
- Capitalize full, formal name: 2012 Online Student Evaluation.
- Lowercase short and general forms: student evaluation, evaluation system.
- Capitalize full, formal titles of events: 2012 Alumni Homecoming, 12th AUC Research Conference.
- Lowercase all other references: the homecoming, the conference.
every day (adv.), everyday (adj.)
- She goes to work by bus every day. This is an everyday task.
every one, everyone
- Two words when it means each individual item: Every one of the clues was worthless.
- Use no hyphen for words that use ex- in the sense of out of: excommunicate, expropriate.
- Hyphenate when using ex- in the sense of former: ex-convict, ex-president.
- Do not capitalize ex- when attached to a formal title before a name: ex-President Richard Nixon. The prefix modifies the entire term: ex-New York Gov. Mario Cuomo; not New York ex-Gov.
- Spell out as examination on first reference. Use exam in subsequent references.
- Always lowercase.
- Capitalize before a name only if it is a formal corporate or organizational title.
- Exhibit is a verb; exhibition is a noun: The professor will exhibit his students’ work at the gallery. The exhibition was well-attended.
extension, campus telephone
- For on-campus extensions, write ext. followed by a space and the four-digit number: ext. 2396.
- See telephone numbers.
- Do not use a hyphen when extra means outside of unless the prefix is followed by a word beginning with a or a capitalized word: extramarital, extralegal. But: extra-alimentary, extra-Britannic.
- Follow extra- with a hyphen when it is part of a compound modifier describing a condition beyond the usual size, extent or degree: extra-mild taste.
- One word.
eye to eye, eye-to-eye
- Hyphenate when used as a compound modifier: an eye-to-eye confrontation.