• Abbreviation for electronic: e-book, e-reader, e-commerce, e-networking, e-business, e-cash.


  • The word earth is generally lowercase. Capitalize when used as the proper name of the planet: He is down to earth. Mercury is the planet closest to the sun, followed by Venus and then Earth.



  • The electronic version of a book or publication, sold digitally. Also e-book reader or e-reader.


  • E-classrooms are classrooms equipped with electronic media and equipment. Use smart classrooms instead.


  • Do not hyphenate: email, not e-mail.
  • Lowercase except when it is the first word in a sentence.
  • Do not write the word 'email' when listing contact information; just put the e-mail address:
    For more information: publications@aucegypt.edu.
  • Email may be used as a noun, verb or adjective:
    • He checks his email daily (n.).
    • I emailed you the document (v.).
    • Your email address is very creative (adj.).


  • An online invitation. Do not use e-invite.


  • Hyphenate.

effect, affect

  • effect (n.) means result: The therapy had a phenomenal effect.
  • effect (v.) means to cause: The president will effect new changes in policy.
  • affect (n.) means emotion (used mostly in psychology).
  • affect (v.) means to influence: The incident affected her deeply.

e.g., i.e.

  • e.g. (exempli gratia) means for example. Use it to give an example of something already stated.
  • i.e. (id est) means that is. Use it to clarify a point that has been made.
  • When using e.g. and i.e., set off with commas and use periods: Please state your status, i.e. graduate or undergraduate.
  • It is preferable to spell out the terms and avoid using e.g. and i.e.
  • Not preferred: The professor attended conferences in many countries worldwide, e.g. France, Italy and Egypt.
  • Preferred: The professor attended conferences in many countries worldwide, including France, Italy and Egypt.

Eid Al-Adha

Eid Al-Fitr


  • Always hyphenate and lowercase, except when used as a formal title before a name: President-elect John Smith.


em dash, en dash


  • Capitalize with the name of a nation; lowercase without it: the Indian Embassy, the embassy.

emerita, emeritus, emeriti

  • Professor emeritus means a retired male faculty who is permitted to retain the rank of his last academic appointment as an honorary title.
  • Capitalize when preceding the name; otherwise lowercase: Professor Emeritus Nicholas Hopkins attended the event. Nicholas Hopkins, professor emeritus, attended the event.
  • Emerita refers to the female; emirit to the plural.
  • Professor emeritus, not emeritus professor.

employment fair

  • Capitalize only when used with a specific term and year: the Fall 2012 Employment Fair. I plan to attend tomorrow’s employment fair.

en route  

  • Two words.


  • But follow the spelling of formal names: Encyclopedia Britannica.

endowed professorships

  • Use the term endowed professorship lowercase, not endowed chair.
  • Capitalize when referring to the official name: the Abdulhadi H. Taher Endowed Professorship in Comparative Religion. The comparative religion professorship was launched last year.
  • Endowed professorship in, not of.


  • But reinforce.

Engineering and Science Services

  • Capitalize. Click here for a list of University offices.


  • Lowercase when meaning spiritual or intellectual insight: He enlightened me with his thoughts.
  • Capitalize when referring to the philosophical movement of the 18th century: We studied the Enlightenment period in class.

enquire, enquiry

  • Use inquire, inquiry.

enroll, enrolled, enrolling

ensure, insure, assure

  • Use ensure to mean guarantee: Steps were taken to ensure accuracy.
  • Use insure for references to insurance: The policy insures his life.
  • Use assure to mean to make sure or give confidence: She assured us the statement was accurate.

entitled, titled

  • Entitled means to have a right to something: People are entitled to fair treatment.
  • Titled refers to the names of books, movies, plays, songs or lectures. The professor will give a lecture titled “Water Issues in the Middle East.”

envelop (v.)

  • Other verb forms: enveloping, enveloped. But: envelope (n.).


  • Not a formal title; lowercase.

equally as

  • Do not use the words together; one is sufficient. Omit the 'equally' shown here in parentheses: She was (equally) as wise as Marilyn.


  • Capitalize the names of widely recognized eras: Dark Ages, Middle Ages.
  • Capitalize widely recognized popular names of periods and events: July 23 Revolution, Great Depression, Industrial Revolution.
  • Lowercase century: 21st century.
  • Capitalize only the proper nouns or adjectives in general descriptions of a period: ancient Egypt, classical Rome.
  • Capitalize the names of eras, but not the word era: Nasserist era.

et al., etc.

  • Et al. is a Latin abbreviation meaning and others. Etc. is also a Latin abbreviation and means so on. Avoid such abbreviations.


  • Generally, do not hyphenate words with ethno- as a prefix.
  • Consult The American Heritage Dictionary. If not listed, hyphenate.


  • Capitalize full, formal name: 2012 Online Student Evaluation.
  • Lowercase short and general forms: student evaluation, evaluation system.


  • Capitalize full, formal titles of events: 2012 Alumni Homecoming, 12th AUC Research Conference.
  • Lowercase all other references: the homecoming, the conference.

every day (adv.), everyday (adj.)

  • She goes to work by bus every day. This is an everyday task.

every one, everyone

  • Two words when it means each individual item: Every one of the clues was worthless.


  • Use no hyphen for words that use ex- in the sense of out of: excommunicate, expropriate.
  • Hyphenate when using ex- in the sense of former: ex-convict, ex-president.
  • Do not capitalize ex- when attached to a formal title before a name: ex-President Richard Nixon. The prefix modifies the entire term: ex-New York Gov. Mario Cuomo; not New York ex-Gov.

exam, examination

  • Spell out as examination on first reference. Use exam in subsequent references.

executive branch

  • Always lowercase.

executive director

  • Capitalize before a name only if it is a formal corporate or organizational title.

exhibit, exhibition

  • Exhibit is a verb; exhibition is a noun: The professor will exhibit his students’ work at the gallery. The exhibition was well-attended.

extension, campus telephone

  • For on-campus extensions, write ext. followed by a space and the four-digit number: ext. 2396.
  • See telephone numbers.


  • Do not use a hyphen when extra means outside of unless the prefix is followed by a word beginning with a or a capitalized word: extramarital, extralegal. But: extra-alimentary, extra-Britannic.
  • Follow extra- with a hyphen when it is part of a compound modifier describing a condition beyond the usual size, extent or degree: extra-mild taste.


  • One word.

eye to eye, eye-to-eye

  • Hyphenate when used as a compound modifier: an eye-to-eye confrontation.